Trunk Kinematics of Experienced Riders and Novice Riders During Rising Trot on a Riding Simulator

Lee Clark, Eddie J. Bradley, Russell Mackechnie-Guire, Abbie Taylor, Jonathan Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

20 Downloads (Pure)


Asymmetry of horses and humans is widely acknowledged, but the influence of one upon the other dur- ing horse riding is poorly understood. Riding simulators are popular for education of beginners and anal- ysis of rider biomechanics. This study compares trunk kinematics and saddle forces of 10 experienced riders (ER) and 10 novice riders (NR) performing rising trot on a simulator. Markers were placed on the 4th lumbar (L4) and 7th cervical (C7) spinous processes, and both acromion processes. Displacements in three axes of motion were tracked using 10 high-speed video cameras sampling at 240 Hz. Displace- ment trajectories at L4 and C7 were similar between both groups, displaying an asymmetrical butterfly pattern in the frontal plane, which reversed when changing diagonal. Comparison between groups, NR displayed greater vertical displacement and higher saddle impact forces at L4 ( P = .034), greater ampli- tude of medio-lateral displacement on the right diagonal between C7 and L4, and on the right diagonal while seated they rotated left (acromion processes) while the ER rotated right. Within group comparison demonstrated that on the right diagonal both groups produced significantly greater medio-lateral dis- placement at L4, and NR displayed significantly greater medio-lateral displacement between C7 and L4. On the left diagonal NR produced significantly greater vertical displacement and higher saddle impact forces. The findings of this study suggest that ER were more stable, symmetrical, and had lower impact force on the saddle. These issues could be addressed in beginners using a simulator to avoid unnecessary stresses on horses.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Equine Veterinary Science
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Trunk Kinematics of Experienced Riders and Novice Riders During Rising Trot on a Riding Simulator'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this