The Effect of a Client-Centered Approach on Flow States and the Performance of Three Elite Golfers.

John Pates, Andrew P. Cowen, Costas I. Karageorghis

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review


This study examined the effect of a client-centered approach to consultancy on the performance and flow experiences of three elite golfers during golf competitions organized by the European Golf Tour. Interviews were used to explore the experiential knowledge and psychological strategies of each golfer. After gathering this information the first author applied his academic and consultancy expertise to help clients fit their psychological strategies into a preshot routine for putting, driving, iron play, chipping, and sand shots. Their performance and flow state experiences were analyzed using a single-subject, multiple baselines, across subjects design combined with a procedure to monitor clients' internal experience (Wollman, 1986). The results indicated that all three clients improved their mean stroke average and increased their mean flow scores from baseline to intervention. There were a few overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for the performance scores. The qualitative data provides an insight into how elite golfers use their psychological skills to control psychological states such as flow and enhance performance. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-126
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Golf Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • GOLF tournaments
  • PUTTING (Golf)
  • PERFORMANCE evaluation
  • SPORTS psychology
  • ELITE athletes


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