Footedness and Postural Asymmetry in Amateur Dressage Riders, Riding in Medium Trot on a Dressage Simulator

Tracy L Bye, Victoria Lewis

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1 Citation (Scopus)
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This study explored the relationship between footedness and postural asymmetry in equestrian riders. 28 female riders completed the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire- Revised (WFQ-R), giving a score for footedness. They then took part in a test on a riding simulator where measures of saddle force, stirrup force, and degree of lateral tilt of the pelvic, trunk, and shoulder segments were taken over a period of 20 seconds in trot. Symmetry indices were calculated for stirrup force and saddle force. There were no significant correlations between WFQ-R score and any of the measures of postural symmetry. Only a very small number (n=3) participants showed a marked footedness, with the majority of the sample being classed as 'mixed footed' based on test scores. This, coupled with data loss for some participants in each of the parameters, means direct comparison of footedness groups was difficult. However, the variation of asymmetry in the mixed footed group supports the idea that footedness does not have a significant impact on the rider's posture. There was a correlation between trunk lean and stirrup force symmetry index (r=0.537, P=0.021) showing the trunk leaned towards the side of higher stirrup force. There was a significant negative correlation between pelvic obliquity and shoulder tilt (r= -0.481, P=0.023) with 59% of the sample showing pelvic obliquity and shoulder tilt in opposite directions. The findings indicate that there is little effect of footedness on postural asymmetries in the rider. Research should now consider other causal factors to support riders to become more symmetrical. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103618
JournalJournal of Equine Veterinary Science
Early online date17 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Biomechanics
  • Equestrian
  • Laterality
  • Saddle force
  • Stirrup force


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