Effects of asynchronous music on flow states and shooting performance among netball players

J. Pates, Costas I. Karageorghis, R. Fryer, I. Maynard

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

262 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To examine the effects of self-selected asynchronous (background) music on flow and netball shooting performance in three netball players. Based on the research of Karageorghis and Terry (1999) it was hypothesized that music would promote flow and would therefore have a positive impact on netball shooting performance. Design: An idiographic single-subject multiple baselines across-subjects design was employed (Wollman, 1986). The rationale centred upon the work of Patrick and Hrycaiko (1998) who indicated that single-subject designs were the most appropriate methodology for applied research. Methods: The participants comprised three collegiate netball players who were asked to complete 11 performance trials. Each trial involved taking 12 shots from lines located at three shooting positions. After each performance trial, flow and the internal experience of each player were assessed using the Flow State Scale (Jackson & Marsh, 1996) and Practical Assessment Questionnaire. Participants received the intervention of asynchronous music with the length of pre-intervention baseline increasing for each succeeding player. Results: Two of the participants experienced an increase in the perception of flow while all three participants improved their netball shooting performance. In addition, participants indicated that the intervention helped them to control both the emotions and cognitions that impacted upon their performance. Conclusions: Interventions comprising self-selected music and imagery can enhance athletic performance by triggering emotions and cognitions associated with flow. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-427
Number of pages13
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Emotional control
  • Intervention
  • Optimal experience


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