Behavioral interventions and behavior change techniques used to improve sleep outcomes in athlete populations: A scoping review

Sandy Wilson, Katherine V Sparks, Alice Cline, Steve Draper, Martin I Jones, John Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

Abstract

Background
Athletes display a high prevalence of undesired sleep characteristics that may affect both performance and wellbeing.

Objectives
This scoping review aimed to identify and map the existing evidence of behavioral sleep interventions and their effects on sleep outcomes in athletes, and retrospectively code the behavior change techniques (BCTs) implemented using the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (BCTTv1).

Methods
Conducted following the JBI methodology for scoping reviews, four online databases were used to identify prospective interventions with at least one behavioral component in competitive athletes, and reporting a sleep outcome pre- and post-intervention.

Results
Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria, encompassing 892 participants with a median age of 23. Five intervention categories were identified (education, mind-body practices, direct, multi-component, and other), with each demonstrating mixed efficacy but the potential to improve sleep outcomes. The BCTs varied in type and frequency between each category, with only 18 unique BCTs identified across all studies.

Conclusions
The varied efficacy of previous studies at improving sleep outcomes may be attributed to the lack of behavior change theory applied during intervention development. Designing interventions following a targeted specification of the behavioral problem, and the integration of corresponding BCTs should be considered in future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalBehavioral Sleep Medicine
Early online date5 Jul 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Jul 2024

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