An examination of imagery ability and imagery use in skilled golfers

John K. Parker, Geoff P. Lovell, Martin I. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
101 Downloads (Pure)


Abstract Objectives The use of imagery to improve golf performance is well established and recognised as a key psychological technique in developing and maintaining excellence. However, the relationship between a golfer’s imagery ability and their imagery use is still poorly understood. The current study examined differences in participants vividness of movement imagery and imagery use and the extent their vividness of movement imagery predicted functions of imagery use. Methods One hundred and one male skilled golfers (Mage=27.80, SD=11.03) with CONGU recognised handicaps ranging from plus 4 to 5 (Mhandicap=1.32, SD=2.74) completed both the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (Roberts, R., Callow, N., Hardy, L., Markland, D., & Bringer, J. (2008). Movement imagery ability: Development and assessment of a revised version of the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30(2), 200–221) and Sports Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, C. R., Mack, D. E., Paivio, A., & Hauesenblas, H. A. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the sport imagery questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 73–89). Results The results demonstrated no significant differences between Internal and External visual imagery, however, Kinaesthetic imagery scores were significantly higher than External visual imagery scores. Significant differences in imagery use were recorded with participants reporting higher Cognitive specific imagery use scores compared to other functions of imagery use. Regression analyses indicted that golf handicap accounted for 12% in the variance of Cognitive specific imagery use with an additional 12% accounted for by Internal visual imagery and 7% Kinaesthetic imagery. For Cognitive general imagery use golf handicap accounted for 4% of the variance with Internal visual imagery adding a further 5% to the model. Conclusions Our findings highlight that vividness of movement imagery; specifically, Internal and Kinaesthetic imagery ability are significant predictors of skilled golfers Cognitive specific and Cognitive general imagery use.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sept 2021


  • ability
  • golfers
  • imagery
  • skilled
  • use


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