ACTN3 and AMPD1 Polymorphism and Genotype Combinations in Bulgarian Athletes Performing Wingate Test

Petar Atanasov, Trayana Djarova, Michael Kalinski, Lubomir Petrov, Radka Kaneva, Sam Mugandani, Gregori Watson, Monèm Jemni

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review


The aim of the study was to investigate ACTN3 (α-actinin-3) and AMPD1 (adenosine monophosphate deaminase) polymorphism and genotype combinations in Bulgarian athletes competing in various sports and the relation to peak power output. A mixed group of athletes (n = 52) competing at national and international level and a matching genetic control group (n = 109) of volunteers were recruited. Participants were genotyped for ACTN3 and AMPD1 by polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences in ACTN3 genotype distribution between athletes performing Wingate test (38% RR, 46% RX, 16% XX) and controls (41.2% RR, 46% RX, 12.8% XX). AMPD1 distribution was (73% CC, 27% CT, 0% TT) and in controls (73.2% CC, 25% CT, 1.8% TT). Athletes performing Wingate test showed equal 33% frequency of RR/CC and RX/CC combination, and 12% RX/CT. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) peak power output (11.10 W kg-1) was found in athletes with RX/CT combination compared to other combinations (range: 8.83-9.71 W kg-1) and in R-power (RR + RX) and C-power (CC + CT) dominant models (9.91 W kg-1). Mean power was higher (P < 0.05) in RX/CT combination (8.93 W kg-1) compared to RR/CC (7.75 W kg-1) and RR/CT (7.95 W kg-1). In conclusion, the low frequency of T AMPD1 allele in Bulgarian athletes might indicate that this mutant allele is related to the physical performance. The prevalence of R ACTN3 and C AMPD1 alleles suggests that they could contribute to anaerobic performance. Higher peak power in Wingate test is associated with RX/CT genotype combination and R-and C-power dominant models.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sports Science
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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