Trunk kinematics of horses when jumping in an International Puissance competition

Activity: Talk or presentation typesOral presentation at Conference


This study measured trunk orientation and distance measurements for 24 successful jumping rounds from 12 horse/rider combinations in an FEI International Puissance competition. A triaxial accelerometer with integrated GPS sensor (Alogo™ Move Pro) attached mid-ventrally to the girth was activated throughout the time each horse was in the competition arena. Positive pitch is nose-up, positive yaw is forehand to right of haunches. With a straight approach, horses jumped a triple bar (TB) (1.60-1.70 m high) followed by the Puissance wall (PW:1.80-2.20 m high). Friedman’s analysis with post hoc Wilcoxon’s signed rank tests identified differences between the PW and TB for the take-off, jump suspension, and landing phases of the jump stride (P≤0.05). The stride preceding take-off was longer for PW (PW:3.48 m; TB:3.43 m), had higher maximal positive vertical acceleration (mean) (PW:2.92G: TB:2.32G), higher average speed (PW:414 m/min: TB:322 m/min) and smaller trunk yaw (PW: -1.42°: TB: 3.48°) (all P=0.0004). During the jump suspension, when horses jumped the PW they raised the body higher (PW: 2.3 m: TB: 1.9 m, P=0.0004); had a larger average trunk pitch while ascending (PW 42.4°: TB: 36.3°, P=0.001) and negative vs positive trunk yaw (PW: -0.95°; TB: 3.2°, P=0.0004). When landing, the stride following the jump was shorter for PW (PW:1.82 m: TB:2.06 m, P=0.018), higher negative maximal vertical acceleration (PW:-3.26G: TB:-1.97G, P=0.008) and negative vs positive trunk yaw (PW: -1.41°: TP: 3.14°, P=0.0004). This equipment identified several features that distinguished jumping performance over two fence types, with accelerations being particularly interesting.Does order and location of movements within Olympic GP Freestyle Dressage influence movement scores?J.M. Williams1, M. Edmund1, L. Cameron1, D.M. Marlin2 and R. MacKechnie-Guire11Hartpury University, Equine, Hartpury House, Gloucester, GL19 3BE, United Kingdom, 2AnimalWeb Ltd, Tennyson House, Cambridge, CB4 0WZ, United Kingdom; dressage tests are designed by the rider and combine 16 compulsory movements with music. Individual movements receive a quality score (0-10), which combine to form the technical score. Additionally, the performance receives an artistic score considering the choreography and the order that movements occur. The final score is a combination of technical and artistic scores. When designing freestyle tests, consideration of where and when movements are performed is vital to optimise performance; despite this, performance analysis is limited in dressage. This study explored if the order movements occurred and location performed were associated with superior technical movement scores. Notational analysis identified the order and which quarter of the arena movements were performed in the Tokyo Olympics GP Freestyle test, excluding entrance/finish halts, for the 18 combinations competing. Chi-squared analysis assessed if associations occurred between the most frequent order and arena quarter movements were performed in, and final movement score. Eight movements (53%) scored their highest mark when performed outside of the most frequently observed order and quarter: collected and extended walk, half-pass left and right, one- and two-time changes, and left and right canter pirouette. While the highest marks for seven movements (47%) occurred when performed in the order and quarter they were most frequently observed: extended trot and canter, passage, piaffe and piaffe-passage transitions. Although, no significant associations between the most frequent order and quarter each movement was performed and final movement score, tactically where and when movements are performed could represent marginal gains in elite dressage scoring.
PeriodAug 2023
Event title9th International Conference on Canine and Equine Locomotion
Event typeConference
LocationUtrecht, NetherlandsShow on map